The integration of biology, genomics, and health has opened the possibility of applying genomics technology to nutrition. In 2001, scientists associated with the Human Genome Project announced the successful mapping of the reference sequence of the human genome. The implications of this achievement to science have been enormous. Since then, a body of information has emerged, including genetic and genomic sequence data, further evidence of nutrient-gene and gene-environment interactions, and the gene expression patterns associated with many chronic diseases. The utility of this information cannot be underestimated. Genomics and related areas of research have contributed greatly to efforts to understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying diet-disease relationships.